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Ushanka is Russian hat with round crown and ear flaps, usually made of fur. This hat is one of the symbols of the Soviet Union because it was developed and popularized in Russia during Civil War. Today ushanka is standard winter military hat in many countries, but also a fashioned hat made of different materials, not just fur.
Hats are a part of human wardrobe for centuries. With different uses, from protection to fashion statement they changed through time and changed with how we see ourselves. Learn more about history of hats.
The fez is a red short cylinder with a tassel on the top of it. It was popularized during Ottoman period, but still is an icon of Ottoman culture. Fez was used in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and North Africa, so it's unclear where were its origins. It was a regular part of uniforms of many countries and today is mostly exotic fashion item and part of national costumes.
Pork pie hat is round hat known from 19th century, called that because of similarity with that time pork pie dish. The most popular were from 1830 through American Civil War, but in the 20th century, it was popularized again thanks to actor Buster Keaton, and, after that, thanks to jazz musicians such as Lester Young and Charles Mingus.